If you read my blog there is a reasonable chance that you are familiar with RFC 8555, the standard for Automatic Certificate Management Environment (ACME). Even though ACME is a relatively young protocol it is already used by the majority of websites on the internet for certificate lifecycle management.
While I won’t go into a lot of detail for this post to make sense you have to understand a couple of things about the ACME protocol.
The first is that it works on the concept of dynamic “account” registration. By that I mean requestors can in real-time, request that an “account” be created for them. This account is represented by a public key pair that the ACME service will use to persist meta-data about the requestor. The ACME service can deny this request for any reason it likes but commonly in Web PKI as long as the request is wellformed it is accepted.
The next thing you need to understand is that it has the concept of “challenges” that can be used to communicate conditions that must be met before a certificate is issued. For example, an ACME service may request that the account holder demonstrate that they are authorized to get a certificate for a given domain name by placing a specific value in DNS at a well-known location. Since only a DNS administrator could perform that action the ACME service can have confidence the requestor controls the name it has requested a certificate for.
And finally, there is nothing in the ACME protocol that limits its use to just web server certificates. It is a general framework that can be used to acquire and manage certificates of any type. For example, CISCO is using ACME in their WebEx offering to facilitate the acquisition of what are essentially email certificates via OIDC authentication as a way to authenticate chat members.
But there is another very popular protocol, a well set of protocols that fewer people know about, that is XCEP and WSTEP. These protocols are used by Windows machines to both determine what kind of certificates a machine or user should enroll for as well as enabling the enrollment for those certificates.
Similar to ACME these protocols also support, although in a more ridged rigid way, the ability for the issuer to challenge the client for additional information necessary to get a certificate of a particular type. For example, you can configure a certificate type (known as a template) to require that the requestor provide a cryptographic attestation backed by a TPM to be used to prove the machine belongs to the organization operating the certificate authority.
There are differences though, the first of which is the concept of a template, this enables XCEP/WSTEP to have one URL endpoint issue many types of certificates which is very important within an enterprise which is where certificates are used for many different scenarios.
Another difference is that XCEP/WSTEP presume the authorization of the client happened out of the band before the client requested the certificate. The dynamic approach to challenges that was adopted by ACME allowed it to tackle this problem in-band or rely on the out-of-band authorization. It supports this out-of-band concept through the concept of External Account Binding which allows the requestor to use an API key gathered out of band to prove on account creation the account key is associated with some pre-enrolled user.
And finally, ACME has a clear model for extensibility built into it. What this means is that one can easily extend it with additional capabilities. The most fundamental part of this is the Directory resource which lists all of the APIs supported by this ACME instance. One could use this, for example, to add a “Templates” API that would allow an ACME client to request specific types of certificates from the ACME endpoint.
Similarly, the concept of the challenge allows the server to demand the client do any number of things before the certificate is to be issued so the idea of adding a TPM challenge, for example, is trivial within this framework.
In short, ACME, contrary to popular belief, is not a protocol for getting and managing website certificates it is a framework for getting and managing any certificate. More importantly, it is extensible in such a way that with just a few minor additions it would be a proper superset of all the capabilities within the Windows enrollment protocol suite.
Why is this important? That’s easy! When I talk to anyone who is using certificates at any reasonable scale their concerns almost instantly come to the complexity of managing the certificate lifecycle management of those certificates across the various products and services that use them.
When we look at this complexity most of it arises from the use of a mish-mash of solutions for lifecycle management that when viewed in isolation seemed sufficient but when looked at holistically were actually woefully insufficient.
If as an industry we move these legacy systems to a single protocol so that certificates regardless of them being for public or private PKI or representing users, machines or workloads use one protocol we will have a reliable substrate that we can use to authenticate and authorize with agility.