Lately, I have been thinking about the history of defensive security technology. One of the purest examples here can be found in safes and vaults. The core purpose of a safe is obvious, to make it cost-prohibitive for an attacker to gain access to whatever is inside without being detected.
With that said, the topic is a lot more nuanced than it seems on the surface. If we look at a safe used by a typical community bank in the 1800s, one of the things you will notice is that they often have ornate decorations on their exteriors, beautifully designed locking mechanisms and their locking mechanisms are covered by specific patents. These traits were clearly designed to signal something to the visitors of the bank, namely that they use the latest technology to keep your valuables safe.
Beyond the messaging buried in the design, these safes were also designed to mitigate specific threats, for example, In the mid-1800s it was common for attackers to steal safes, use explosives to open them and to kidnap those that had access to the secrets necessary to open a safe, or those near and dear to them.
In response to this reality, safe manufacturers started to use materials like manganese to manufacture safes, making the walls very thick and as a result very heavy (often 3 tons or more!), rounding corners, and using locking cylinder-shaped doors in combination to make theft or the use of explosives no longer interesting vectors for an attack.
These changes, combined with artful customizations also provided a way for banks to ensure that sophisticated thieves could not replace a safe in order to delay the detection time and have a safer getaway.
They also started incorporating time locks, to make it so if someone was kidnapped, they would still not be able to open the safe outside core business hours, essentially enabling the creation of a fully disclosed ledger of all goods stored in or withdrawn from the safe.
A famous example here is from 1876 in the robbery of the Great Northfield Minnesota Bank by Jesse James and the Cole Younger gang, it was foiled due to a safe with these design characteristics.
As I think about the parallels in modern technology, I can not help but to come back to a post I did this last year titled “An Evolution of Security Thinking’, in particular how we have gone from security as something you added after the fact to one where it is built into a system from the get-go. Moreover, it seems that these safes may also represent one fo the first examples of transparency being applied as a technique used to dissuade an attacker.
If a safe has no tumbler on the outside, what good would it do to kidnap the bank manager? As a result, the attacker is forced to attempt their theft during business hours when the bank was busy and they would have a larger chance of getting caught.
If it is obvious a safe has 12” thick walls and weighs in at over 3 tons, then stealing the safe at night, or using explosives to open the safe, given the skills and resources of the attacker, is no longer a viable path of compromise either. As a result, forcing the assailant to attack the bank during the day, when the vault may already be opened.
The safe manufactures, by making their designs, and mitigations clear, were attempting to dissuade attackers from even attempting their attack. This is not materially different from how today we are applying the concepts of cryptographic transparency as a tool to mitigate other attacks.
In short, transparent systems are essentially the antithesis of security by obscurity. While designing a system to be cryptographically verifiable does not necessarily require the contents of that system to be known, just as the safe design doesn’t require the contents of the safe itself to be known, the use of these patterns makes it possible to intelligently reason about the security and integrity of the system.
Just a thought…..
P.S. Thanks to Fotis Loukos and Yael Grauer for providing feedback on this post.