The Growing Security Concerns of Modern Firmware and the Need for Change.

Today’s firmware is larger and more complex than ever before. In 1981, the IBM PC BIOS was a mere 8 KB, but now UEFI, even without considering machines with BMCs, can be 32 MB or even larger! To illustrate the magnitude of the problem, Intel will soon release its next-generation SoCs with support for 128 MB of firmware!

Essentially, UEFI has become a real-time OS with over 6 million lines of code and is still growing. This is larger than most modern operating systems. Furthermore, the various boot phases and hardware layers create significant complexity for defenders. Increased surface area leads to more vulnerabilities.

The most impactful and difficult-to-patch vulnerabilities reside in the underbelly of technology. Firmware, file systems, BGP, and other foundational aspects of technology that we often take for granted are becoming more vulnerable to attacks. It’s time to prioritize security for the very foundation of our tech. Benjamin Franklin once said, “A failure to plan is a plan to fail.” This adage often applies to long-term vulnerabilities in technology. Insufficient planning can lead to an inability to detect issues, inadequate data to assess their true severity, and a lack of responsiveness.

Firmware serves as a prime example. Many firmware-level issues remain unpatched because firmware often lacks the measurement and patching middleware we expect from software. Moreover, hardware vendors frequently behave as if their job is complete once they release a patch. Imagine if, in 2023, software vendors merely dropped a patched piece of software into a barely discoverable HTTP-accessible folder and proclaimed, “Thank goodness we’ve done our part.” This scenario largely reflects the current state of firmware.

One reason for this situation is that the problem on the surface appears intractable. A typical PC may house dozens of firmware components, with no inventory of what exists. This firmware often originates from multiple vendors and may include outdated chips that have not been updated.

Another fitting saying is, “You can’t manage what you can’t measure.” Combine this with the exponential growth of firmware surface area and the increasing number of internet-connected devices containing firmware, and you have a massive security issue arising from decades of neglect.

There is no silver bullet here. One aspect to address is the way firmware is built. USB Armory aims to solve this by making firmware memory safe, easy to read, and with minimal dependencies. While this is a positive step, it is not sufficient on its own. has created the best automation available for detecting firmware issues automatically, which is invaluable considering that old approaches will persist for decades.

To drive change, we need better measurement and widespread adoption of automatic update mechanisms for firmware of all sizes. These mechanisms must be safe, reliable, and robust. Misaligned incentives contribute to the problem, often resulting from a lack of accountability and transparency. This is why I dedicated as much time as I could to while at Google.

The momentum around software supply chain security is essential, as it sheds some light on the problem, but alone it is not enough to bring about the necessary change. If you create a chip with firmware that has a vulnerability, your responsibility does not end with shipping a patch. If you ship devices without providing a way to seamlessly patch all firmware, you are failing.

Relying on the next hardware refresh cycle to update firmware on your devices in the field is insufficient. With cloud adoption, refresh cycles might even lengthen. A long-term strategy to support your devices is necessary; not doing so externalizes the consequences of your inaction on society.

If you have devices in the field that are in use, and you don’t have a confident inventory of the dependencies that exist in them, and you’re not monitoring those dependencies and the firmware itself for issues, you are part of the problem, externalizing consequences on society.

We can do better.

To improve firmware security, the industry must collaborate and adopt best practices. This includes embracing transparency, robust patch management systems, and long-term support strategies for devices. By working together to address these challenges, we can build a more secure foundation for the technology that underpins our modern world.

In conclusion, it’s crucial that we prioritize firmware security, as it plays a fundamental role in the safety and reliability of our devices and systems. By implementing more effective measurement, automatic update mechanisms, and long-term support strategies, we can reduce the risks associated with outdated and vulnerable firmware. This will help create a safer digital environment for everyone.

P.S. Thanks to @matrosov and @zaolin for their insights on the problem on Twitter.

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